Y naw rhinwedd ‘The nine virtues’

  • Middle Welsh
  • prose

A Middle Welsh version of the ‘nine answers/virtues of Christ’, which is given by Elis Gruffydd in Cardiff MS 3.4.

p. 146
rubric: ‘Yn naw rinnwedd a ddanvonnes Duw i druan o ddyn’
beg. ‘Y gynnta yw [megis i dyvod] Duw a'i ennav i hun’
  • Middle Welsh
  • “probably made in the fifteenth century” (Flower).
prose (primary)



Primary sources Text editions and/or modern translations – in whole or in part – along with publications containing additions and corrections, if known. Diplomatic editions, facsimiles and digital image reproductions of the manuscripts are not always listed here but may be found in entries for the relevant manuscripts. For historical purposes, early editions, transcriptions and translations are not excluded, even if their reliability does not meet modern standards.

[ed.] Flower, Robin, “The nine answers”, Bulletin of the Board of Celtic Studies 1:2 (1922, 1921–1923): 133–139.