Würzburg, Universitätsbibliothek, MS M. p. th. f. 12 Codex Paulinus Wirziburgensis

  • Latin, Old Irish
  • s. viii/ix
  • Continental manuscripts containing Irish, Continental manuscripts containing Irish
Epistles of St Paul
M. p. th. f. 12
Codex Paulinus Wirziburgensis
Pauline Epistles
Provenance and related aspects
Latin Secondary: Old Irish
Latin, with glosses in Old Irish
s. viii/ix
Hands, scribes
Hands indexed:
Main hand Hand responsible for writing the biblical text.
Glossing hand 1 (prima manus) Hand which typically glosses individual words and is attested in places between ff. 6v and 33r. Most of the glosses are in Latin, some in Irish. The language is generally older than that of the other glossing hands. Opinion differs on the relationship between this hand and the main one. Thurn (1984), in the catalogue description, attributes both hands to a single scribe; Strachan (1901) argues that a common scribal identity “seems doubtful”.
Glossing hand 2 Hand responsible for most of the Irish and Latin glosses down to f. 32vb.
Glossing hand 3 Hand responsible for most of the glosses on ff. 33ra-34ra, in continuation of glossing hand 2.
Glossing hand 4 Ludwig Christian Stern, Epistolae Beati Pauli glosatae glosa interlineali: irisch-lateinischer Codex der Würzburger Universitätsbibliothek, in Lichtdruckherausgegeben (1910): xv identifies a fourth hand, which was responsible for only a handful of glosses.
Old Irish glosses, known as the Würzburg glosses
Table of contents

Links to texts use a standardised title for the catalogue and so may or may not reflect what is in the manuscript itself, hence the square brackets. Their appearance comes in three basic varieties, which are signalled through colour coding and the use of icons, , and :

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The above method of differentiating between links has not been applied yet to texts or citations from texts which are included in the context of other texts, commonly verses.


While it is not a reality yet, CODECS seeks consistency in formatting references to locations of texts and other items of interest in manuscripts. Our preferences may be best explained with some examples:

  • f. 23ra.34: meaning folio 23 recto, first column, line 34
  • f. 96vb.m: meaning folio 96, verso, second column, middle of the page (s = top, m = middle, i = bottom)
    • Note that marg. = marginalia, while m = middle.
  • p. 67b.23: meaning page 67, second column, line 23
The list below has been collated from the table of contents, if available on this page,Progress in this area is being made piecemeal. Full and partial tables of contents are available for a small number of manuscripts. and incoming annotations for individual texts (again, if available).Whenever catalogue entries about texts are annotated with information about particular manuscript witnesses, these manuscripts can be queried for the texts that are linked to them.


Primary sources This section typically includes references to diplomatic editions, facsimiles and photographic reproductions, notably digital image archives, of at least a major portion of the manuscript. For editions of individual texts, see their separate entries.

[dig. img.] Virtuelle Bibliothek Würzburg, Online: Julius-Maximilians-Universität Würzburg, ?–present. URL: <>.
[dig. img.] TITUS: Thesaurus Indogermanischer Text- und Sprachmaterialien, Online: Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universität Frankfurt am Main, 1987–present. URL: <>.
Digital reproduction of the facsimile published by Stern (1910). direct link
[facs. ed.] Stern, Ludwig Christian, Epistolae Beati Pauli glosatae glosa interlineali: irisch-lateinischer Codex der Würzburger Universitätsbibliothek, in Lichtdruckherausgegeben, Halle, 1910.
– PDF: <link>  : View in Mirador
[ed.] Stokes, Whitley, and John Strachan [eds.], Thesaurus palaeohibernicus: a collection of Old-Irish glosses, scholia, prose, and verse, 3 vols, vol. 1: Biblical glosses and scholia, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1901.  
comments: The first volume of Thesaurus palaeohibernicus covers glosses and scholia on the Old and New Testament. Reprinted by DIAS in 1975.
Internet Archive – vol. 1: <link>
499–712 (text); xxiii–xxxv (introduction) Edition of the glosses.

Secondary sources (select)

Thurn, Hans, Die Handschriften der Universitätsbibliothek Würzburg. Dritter Band, Erste Hälfte: Die Pergamenthandschriften der ehemaligen Dombibliothek, Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz, 1984.
Manuscripta mediaevalia: <link>
9–10 direct link
Breen, Aidan, “The Biblical text and sources of the Würzburg Pauline glosses (Romans 1–6)”, in: Próinséas Ní Chatháin, and Michael Richter (eds), Irland und Europa im früheren Mittelalter: Bildung und Literatur / Ireland and Europe in the early Middle Ages: learning and literature, Stuttgart: Klett-Cotta, 1996. 9–16.
C. A., Dennis Groenewegen
Page created
November 2010, last updated: August 2023