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From CODECS: Online Database and e-Resources for Celtic Studies

Results (25245)
Davis, R., and T. Dunne, The empty throne: childhood and the crisis of modernity, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, forthcoming.
McInerney, Luke, Learned families, scholarly networks and sites of native learning in late medieval Thomond, Dublin: Four Courts Press, forthcoming.
This study explores the learned Gaelic families (poets, historians and physicians) and the context in which they lived. A wide-ranging survey, it looks at the landholdings and structures of individual learned families that were settled in Thomond during the late medieval period. Topics explored include the ‘production of knowledge’ as a way of legitimizing the social hierarchies and landholdings of their powerful patrons. Different types of cultural power are explored, especially how they were used by the Gaelic elite, who employed the learned class to not only preserve genealogies, dispense law and provide advice, but also to promote their interests in a variety of ways. Other topics include the remarkably cohesive esprit de corps shared by the learned families, and the type of networks these families engaged in to sustain learning. The book directs attention to the range of onomastic, archaeological and literary materials that can help build up a picture about the Gaelic men of learning.
Utrecht University website, Online: Utrecht University, ?–present. URL: <>
Website of the Stichting A. G. van Hamel voor Keltische Studies (A. G. van Hamel Foundation for Celtic Studies), Online: Stichting A. G. van Hamel voor Keltische Studies, ?–present. URL: <>
Digital medieval manuscripts at Houghton Library, Online: Harvard University, Houghton Library, ?–present. URL: <>
Oxford, Bodleian Library website, Online: Oxford, Bodleian Library, ?–present. URL: <>
Oxford Digital Library: LUNA, Online, ?–present. URL: <>
Digital Bodleian, Online: Oxford, Bodleian Library, ?–present. URL: <>
Endres, Bill [dir.], Manuscripts of Lichfield Cathedral, Online: University of Kentucky, College of Arts & Sciences, ?–present. URL: <>
Website offering digital reproductions of two manuscripts in Lichfield Cathedral Library: the St Chad Gospels and the Wycliffe New Testament. In 2014, images were captured of “dry-point glosses and the state of pigment in the St Chad Gospels ... including previously unknown dry-point glosses” (identified as glosses containing Old English personal names).
Tristram, Konrad J. [photography], Reichenauer Schulheft - Reichenau Primer: Benediktinerstift St. Paul im Lavanttal (Kärnten) - St. Paul in Carinthia, Online: Hildegard L. C. Tristram, ?–present. URL: <>
Images of the Reichenau Primer, photographed in 1998.
De Finibus website, Online: UCC, ?–present. URL: <>
Project website, which includes a catalogue of key texts and bibliography.
FulDig: Fuldaer Digitale Sammlungen, Online: Hochschul- und Landesbibliothek Fulda, ?–present. URL: <>
Burgerbibliothek Bern: Online-Archivkatalog, Online: Burgerbibliothek Bern, ?–present. URL: <>
Firenze, Biblioteca Medicea Laurenziana: digital repository, Online: Biblioteca Medicea Laurenziana, ?–present. URL: <>
Bleier, Roman [proj. dir.], St Patrick's epistles: transcriptions of the seven medieval manuscript witnesses, Online: Karl-Franzens-Universität Graz, ?–present. URL: <>
Virtuelle Bibliothek Würzburg, Online: Julius-Maximilians-Universität Würzburg, ?–present. URL: <>
Carolingian culture at Reichenau and St. Gall. Codex Sangallensis 1092: content and context, Online: University of Virginia, University of California at Los Angeles, University of Vienna, ?–present. URL: <>
This site will provide access to the results of our long-term project of creating an extensive data base to aid research into the [St Gall] Plan and Carolingian monastic culture. Besides a variety of digital representations of the Plan itself, the site includes a graphic representation of how the Plan was physically made, detailed information on each of the elements of the Plan, and transcriptions and translations of its inscriptions. In addition, the site contains resources for understanding the material culture context of the Plan. A series of extensive data bases include one presenting physical objects found across Europe that add to our understanding of Carolingian monasticism, one devoted to the terminology of Carolingian material culture, descriptions of all known Carolingian religious edifices, and an extensive bibliography on both the Plan itself and Carolingian monastic culture generally. All these databases are searchable individually and collectively.
BLB (Karlsruhe, Badische Landesbibliothek): digitale Sammlungen, Online: Badische Landesbibliothek, ?–present. URL: <>
aratea-digital: a collection of digital editions and manuscript descriptions of medieval transmissions of Aratus‘ (ca. 315/310-240 BC) didactic poem the Phaenomena, Online: ACDH-OeAW, ?–present. URL: <>
Aratea Digital is a database collecting information about astronomy in the Early Middle Ages. The main focus of the project is the Latin transmission of the so-called Aratea texts including the Latin translations and the derivative texts based on Aratus' didactic poem Phaenomena. The website presents descriptions of their (pre-13th-century) manuscripts, references to the latest editions and relevant literature. This website is work-in-progress. We are constantly working on improving and enhancing the information provided.
[Website of Brussels, Bibliothèque Royale de Belgique (Royal Library of Belgium)], Online: Bibliothèque Royale de Belgique, ?–present. URL: <>
CEEC (Codices electronici ecclesiae Coloniensis): Erzbischöfliche Diözesan- und Dombibliothek, Online: Universität zu Köln, ?–present. URL: <>
Fife place-name data, Online: Glasgow University, ?–present. URL: <>
Currently (6/2020) still in development.
Stewart, Bruce, Ricorso: a knowledge of Irish literature, Online, ?–present. URL: <>
This website consists of a body of biographical records, bibliographical listings, and textual extracts from primary works and commentaries on them. Its contents have been compiled through a variet[y] of methods including systematic surveys of existing reference works and a constant process of record in relation to a range of book notices, reviewing organs, and academic journals as well as routine reading, with - whenever possible - key exemplary passages from key texts and commentaries on them. In addition, the opportunities of teaching and examining have allowed me to accrue a good deal of more focussed information in relation to some authors, while very many texts on a given author have rendered information or opinions about another, and these have always been recorded as far as possible (being, as James Joyce might say, the most “evanescent of moments” and, for that reason, often the most valuable. Together with the compulsive urge to lose nothing and include everything that has been met with in the course of a reading life - an urge which seems even less sane at the end than it did at the beginning - the hope has always been to arrive at a synopsis of the findings of Irish literary scholarship since that field of enquiry grew into a distinct area of interest and attention within the wider discipline of English literary criticism with the emergence of the distinct field of Anglo-Irish studies. Hence the name RICORSO. For, while this is a twenty-year-long compilation which might best be considered as an electronic scrapbook - as worthwhile and no more so than that suggests - it is also a homage to the achievement of Irish writers and literary critics along with their international counterparts in turning Irish studies into the highly-developed and fully-theorised area of cultural and intellectual research that it is today. An even deeper bow is made in these webpages to the membership of the International Association for the Study of Irish Literatures which came into existence in 1970 and especially to its founding genius, A. N. (“Derry”) Jeffares (See IASIL - online).
Manchester digital collections, Online: Manchester University, ?–present. URL: <>
Bibliothèque d'Agglomération du Pays de Saint-Omer (BAPSO): Bibliothèque numérique, Online: BAPSO, ?–present. URL: <>
“Coláiste na Rinne”, Anne-Marie OʼBrien, and Pádraig Ó Macháin, Irish Script on Screen (ISOS) – Meamrám Páipéar Ríomhaire, Online: School of Celtic Studies, Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies, ?–present. URL: <>
The Schøyen Collection: manuscripts from around the world, Online, ?–present. URL: <>
Lambeth Palace Library, Online: Lambeth Palace Library, ?–present. URL: <>
Taylor, Alice [princip. invest.], and Matthew Hammond [co-invest.], The people of medieval Scotland 1093–1371, Online: King's College, London, University of Glasgow, University of Edinburgh, ?–present. URL: <>
The database contains all information that can be assembled about every individual involved in actions in Scotland or relating to Scotland in documents written between the death of Malcolm III on 13 November 1093 and Robert I's parliament at Cambuskenneth on 6 November 1314. The bounds of the kingdom of the Scots changed during this period; for the sake of consistency, the database covers all the territory that had become part of Scotland by the death of Alexander III. (This means that the Isle of Man and Berwick are included, but Orkney and Shetland are not.) Also, the database is not simply a list of everyone who is ever mentioned. It is designed to reflect the interactions and relationships between people as this is represented in the documents.
Faclair na Gáidhlig: dictionary of the Scottish Gaelic language, Online: University of Aberdeen, University of Edinburgh, University of Glasgow, University of Strathclyde, Sabhal Mór Ostaig UHI, ?–present. URL: <>
The Dictionary of the Scottish Gaelic Language is an inter-university initiative by the Universities of Aberdeen, Edinburgh, Glasgow, Strathclyde and Sabhal Mòr Ostaig UHI.

The aim is to produce an historical dictionary of Scottish Gaelic comparable to the multi-volume resources already available for Scots and English, namely the Dictionary of the Older Scottish Tongue, the Scottish National Dictionary and the Oxford English Dictionary. These resources are now available on-line. The Dictionary of the Scottish Gaelic Language will be published initially in electronic format.

The dictionary will document fully the history of the Gaelic language and culture from the earliest manuscript material onwards, placing Gaelic in context with Irish and Scots. By allowing identification of the Gaelic/Scots interface throughout Scottish history, it will increase our understanding of our linguistic national heritage and will reveal the fundamental role of Gaelic in the linguistic identity of Scotland. Of equal importance, it will show the relationship between Scottish Gaelic and Irish.

The dictionary will respond to the needs of the Gaelic language in the 21st century by providing an authoritative foundation for smaller bilingual and monolingual dictionaries and language learning materials. Thus, the dictionary will be geared to meet the needs of students, teachers and parents in the growing sector of Gaelic-medium education.

The Dictionary will be the major language project for Scottish Gaelic, providing a foundation and a stimulus for future language initiatives.
Taylor, Alice [princip. invest.], The community of the realm in Scotland, 1249–1424, Online, ?–present. URL: <>
The 'community of the realm in Scotland' project (COTR) is an innovative collaborative research project which will show how new ways of representing medieval texts in digital media can yield new understandings of medieval political communities and their written manifestations. This website provides resources on medieval Scotland during the Wars of Independence with England for public consumption and highlights our new approach to representing key documents and texts from Scotland’s medieval past.
The corpus of Romanesque sculpture in Britain and Ireland, Online, ?–present. URL: <>

The Corpus of Romanesque Sculpture will be a complete online record of all the surviving Romanesque sculpture in Britain and Ireland, at more than 5000 sites. It provides us with a unique window on the aesthetics, beliefs, daily life, preoccupations, humour and technical skills of the artists and people of this creative and formative era from the late 11th century to the late 12th century.

Every entry is freely available and includes information on the historical and architectural context of the building, a first-class photographic record, and a scholarly description of the sculpture. Our work continues and many sites are already available on this website.

Durham University: Collections (DRO-DATA), Online: Durham University, ?–present. URL: <>
Irish translator database, Online: Galway, National University of Ireland, ?–present. URL: <>
The database is a collection of names of translators and works of translation from nineteenth-century Ireland. Translators who were born in Ireland or who lived for a large part of their lives in Ireland are included. Translators who were born at the end of the nineteenth century but who published translations in the twentieth century are not included. The database is an output of the Translation in 19th Century Ireland project, which widens our understanding of cultural exchange in the nineteenth century by studying translation and translators.
Iron Age coins in Britain, Online: Oxford University, ?–present. URL: <>
Ancient British Coins (ABC) is the most comprehensive reference book for the typology of the Iron Age coins of Britain. ABC catalogues 999 types of coins found in Britain from around the early to mid-2nd century BC through the 1st century AD. The earliest issues were imported to Britain from the Continent, but they were shortly thereafter minted locally, remaining in circulation even after Roman occupation. Iron Age Coins in Britain (IACB) is now available as a digital research tool that provides access to an edited ABC online. IACB is made possible by stable numismatic identifiers and linked open data methodologies established by the project. <iI>ACB is built on the numbering system created by the Ancient British Coins (ABC) series published in 2010 (available to purchase here). On this website, some aspects of this typology have been changed (e.g. descriptions, spellings), therefore this website is not the responsibility of the publishers of ABC.
National Library of Scotland: Collections, Online: NLS, ?–present. URL: <>
Breton songs on popular prints: broadsheets database, Online, ?–present. URL: <>
Alongside the Breton repertoire of oral tradition and often in reciprocal interaction with it, a vast repertoire in Breton and French was composed and distributed, initially through inexpensive, sometimes even free, printedmatter. Composed for singing, thereby helping better memorisation, many of these pieces, in their turn, have entered the oral tradition.

This repertoire reflects a many-faceted image of society and its preoccupations. It gives voice to the illiterate as well as to educated people, to the underclass as well as to the elite. It’s topics are abundant: from news in brief to great events, from praise to satire, from daily life to prognostications of all varieties ...

Produced by volunteers, the principle aim of this free, unsubsidised site is to help the research of those who access it.
Tobar an dualchais = Kist o riches, Online: University of Edinburgh, ?–present. URL: <>

Tobar an Dualchais/Kist o Riches is a collaborative project which has been set up to preserve, digitise, catalogue and make available online several thousand hours of Gaelic and Scots recordings. This website contains a wealth of material such as folklore, songs, music, history, poetry, traditions, stories and other information. The material has been collected from all over Scotland and beyond from the 1930s onwards.

The recordings come from the School of Scottish Studies (University of Edinburgh), BBC Scotland and the National Trust for Scotland's Canna Collection.

Please note that not all material from the School of Scottish Studies Archives is available on the website.

Examples from these collections include

  • Stories recorded by John Lorne Campbell on wax cylinders in 1937
  • Folklore collected all over Scotland by Calum Maclean in the 19
  • 50s Scots songs recorded by Hamish Henderson from travelling people in the 1960s
  •  Conversations recorded on Radio nan Gàidheal
Please note that the sound quality is variable on of some of the recordings due to the sound recording equipment available at the time. The project will ensure that Scotland's rich oral heritage is safeguarded and made widely available for educational and personal use for future generations.

Piazzoni, A. M., Latin paleography: from antiquity to the renaissance, Online: Vatican Library, ?–present. URL: <>
PALEOGRAPHY (a word that derives from the Greek and that means “ancient writing”) is the discipline that studies the history of handwriting. Latin paleography studies the scripts written in the Latin alphabet (not only in Latin) from its origins, which date back approximately to the seventh century BC, and continue until the spread of movable type printing, at the beginning of the sixteenth century. The ancient scripts in the Latin alphabet are among the most important sources at our disposal for studying the history of humanity. This pathway aims to help those who wish to learn to read and understand the ancient scripts written in the Latin alphabet.
Canmore: national record of the historic environment, Online: Historic Environment Scotland, ?–present. URL: <>
Canmore contains more than 320,000 records and 1.3 million catalogue entries for archaeological sites, buildings, industry and maritime heritage across Scotland. Compiled and managed by Historic Environment Scotland, Canmore contains information and collections from all its survey and recording work, as well as from a wide range of other organisations, communities and individuals who are helping to enhance this national resource.
Urbana-Champaign, Unversity of Illinois Library: Archives, Online, ?–present. URL: <>
University of Glasgow Library: Special Collections, Online: University of Glasgow, ?–present. URL: <>
Catalogue of illuminated manuscripts [in the British Library], Online: British Library, ?–present. URL: <>
Clancy, Thomas Owen [princip. invest.], and Sofia Evemalm-Graham [research ass.], Eòlas nan naomh: early Christianity in Uist, Onine, ?–present. URL: <>
This project seeks to take the first steps towards a better understanding of early Christianity in Uist, focusing primarily on place-names and archaeological evidence. On the basis of an initial survey of the material, 45 sites have been identified as of potential interest. The initial analysis of these sites is presented here, but the aim of the project is to stimulate further discussions on the sites in question and Uist’s role in the early Christianity of the Western Isles.
Diözesan- und Dombibliothek Köln, mit Bibliothek St. Albertus Magnus: Digitale Samlungen, Online: Universität zu Köln, ?–present. URL: <>
Walters Art Museum: Manuscripts / The Digital Walters, Online: Walters Art Museum, ?–present. URL: <>, <>
Bremen, Staats- und Universitätsbibliothek: website, Online, ?–present. URL: <>
Herzog August Bibliothek Wolfenbüttel: manuscript database, Online, ?–present. URL: <>
Heidelberger historische Bestände – digital, Online: Universität Heidelberg, ?–present. URL: <>
“Irish Jesuit Archives”, Anne-Marie OʼBrien, and Pádraig Ó Macháin, Irish Script on Screen (ISOS) – Meamrám Páipéar Ríomhaire, Online: School of Celtic Studies, Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies, ?–present. URL: <>
Balliol College Archives and Manuscripts, Online: Flickr, ?–present. URL: <>
Biblioteca Nazionale Centrale di Roma: Biblioteca Digitale, Online: Biblioteca Nazionale Centrale di Roma, ?–present. URL: <>
Archaeology Data Service (ADS) Library, Online: Archaeology Data Service, ?–present. URL: <>

The ADS Library brings together bibliographic records and e-prints for published and unpublished archaeological documents. It includes data from the following sources: OASIS ... Digitised Journals and Monographs ... Internet Archaeology ... Publisher Feeds ... Grey Literature Scanning Projects ... Grey Literature from ADS Archives ... Irish and Irish Archaeological Bibliography (BIAB).

RI OPAC: Literature database for the Middle Ages, Online: Regesta Imperii, Akademie der Wissenschaften und der Literatur, Mainz, ?–present. URL: <>

The RI OPAC is a freely accessible literature database for medieval research in the entire European language area, covering all disciplines. The database serves both the regestae database as source for the cited literature, as well as universal research tool for searching for publications. It is characterized in particular by the indexing of dependent articles from a variety of journals and anthologies of even the most remote provenance. Specialist literature from the 16th century onwards is taken into account, which deals with the period from Late Antiquity to the Reformation.

National Library of Wales, National Library of Wales: Digital gallery, Online: NLW, ?–present. URL: <>
Previously Digital Mirror / Drych Digidol, the digital library of the National Library of Wales gives access to digitised manuscripts, printed works, archival materials and other media.
Beyond 2022, Online, ?–present. URL: <>

Beyond 2022 is an all-island and international collaborative research project working to create a virtual reconstruction of the Public Record Office of Ireland, which was destroyed in the opening engagement of the Civil War on June 30th, 1922.

The ‘Record Treasury’ at the Public Record Office of Ireland stored seven centuries of Irish records dating back to the time of the Normans. Together with our 5 Core Archival Partners and over 40 other Participating Institutions in Ireland, Britain and the USA, we are working to recover what was lost in that terrible fire one hundred years ago.

On the centenary of the Four Courts blaze next year (30 June 2022), we will launch the Virtual Record Treasury of Ireland online. Many millions of words from destroyed documents will be linked and reassembled from copies, transcripts and other records scattered among the collections of our archival partners. We will bring together this rich array of replacement items within an immersive 3-D reconstruction of the destroyed building.

The Virtual Record Treasury of Ireland will be an open-access resource, freely available online to all those interested in Irish history at home and abroad. Many of the most important memory institutions worldwide are joining us in this shared mission to reconstruct Ireland’s lost history. The Virtual Record Treasury will serve as a living and growing legacy from the Decade of Centenaries.

Digital Scriptorium consortium, Digital scriptorium, Online: University of California Berkeley Library, ?–present. URL: <>

Digital Scriptorium is a growing consortium of American libraries and museums committed to free online access to their collections of pre-modern manuscripts. Our website unites scattered resources from many institutions into a national digital platform for teaching and scholarly research. It serves to connect an international user community to multiple repositories by means of a digital union catalog with sample images and searchable metadata. Many DS records also link out to the websites of our contributors, where users can discover further information about these collections.

Médiathèques Orléans: patrimoine, Online, ?–present. URL: <>
Cronfa baledi: mynegai cyfrifiadurol i faledi argraffedig y 18fed ganrif, Online, ?–present. URL: <>
Index to Welsh ballads printed in the 18th century.
Archives Hub, Online: JISC, ?–present. URL: <>

The Archives Hub brings together descriptions of thousands of the UK’s archive collections. Representing over 350 institutions across the country, the Archives Hub is an effective way to discover unique and often little-known sources to support your research. New descriptions are added every week, often representing collections being made available for the first time.

Fragmentarium: laboratory for medieval manuscript fragments, Online: University of Fribourg, ?–present. URL: <>

Fragmentarium’s primary objective is to develop a digital laboratory specialized for medieval manuscript fragment research. Although based on the many years of experience of e-codices — Virtual Manuscript Library of Switzerland, the Fragmentarium Digital Laboratory has an international orientation. First and foremost it is conceived as a platform for libraries, scholars and students to do scholarly work on fragments. It conforms to the latest standards set by digital libraries and will set new standards, especially in the area of interoperability.

Manus Online: manoscritti de biblioteche italiane, Online: ICCU, ?–present. URL: <>

Manus Online (MOL) è un database che comprende la descrizione e la digitalizzazione  (integrale e/o parziale) dei manoscritti conservati nelle biblioteche italiane pubbliche, ecclesiastiche e private. Il censimento, avviato nel 1988 a cura dell'Istituto centrale per il catalogo unico e le informazioni bibliografiche (ICCU), si pone come obiettivo l'individuazione e la catalogazione dei manoscritti (latini, greci, arabi, ecc.) prodotti dal Medioevo all'età contemporanea, compresi i carteggi.

Cantus: a database for Latin ecclesiastical chant, Online: University of Waterloo, ?–present. URL: <>

Cantus is a database of the Latin chants found in manuscripts and early printed books, primarily from medieval Europe. This searchable digital archive holds inventories of antiphoners and breviaries -- the main sources for the music sung in the Latin liturgical Office -- as well as graduals and other sources for music of the Mass.

“British Library”, Anne-Marie OʼBrien, and Pádraig Ó Macháin, Irish Script on Screen (ISOS) – Meamrám Páipéar Ríomhaire, Online: School of Celtic Studies, Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies, ?–present. URL: <>
HMML reading room: online resources for the study of manuscript cultures, Online, ?–present. URL: <>

HMML Reading Room ( offers resources for the study of manuscripts and currently features manuscript cultures from Europe, Africa, the Middle East, South Asia, and Southeast Asia. The site houses high-resolution images of manuscripts, many of them digitized as part of the global mission of the Hill Museum & Manuscript Library (HMML), Collegeville, MN, to preserve and share important, endangered, and inaccessible manuscript collections through digital photography, archiving, and cataloging. It also contains descriptions of manuscripts from HMML's legacy microfilm collection, with scans of some of these films.

Médiathèques de Quimper Bretagne Occidentale, Online, ?–present. URL: <>
BStK Online: Datenbank der althochdeutschen und altsächsischen Glossenhandschriften, Online: Bamberg University, ?–present. URL: <>
Cecilia: Bibliothèque numérique du patrimoine écrit albigeois, Online: Médiathèques du Grand Albigeois, ?–present. URL: <>
James Hardiman Library Archives (CalmView), Online: NUI Galway, ?–present. URL: <>
Jongeling, Karel, Home page, Online, ?–2023. URL: <>
Jongeling, Karel, “Inleiding in de grammatica van het geschreven Welsh”, Karel Jongeling, Home page, Online, ?–2023. URL: <>
Jongeling, Karel, “Oefeningen modern geschreven Welsh 1550-heden”, Karel Jongeling, Home page, Online, ?–2023. URL: <>
Jongeling, Karel, “Geirfa i ddysgwyr. Oefeningen Modern Welshe woordenschat”, Karel Jongeling, Home page, Online, ?–2023. URL: <>
Nagy, Joseph Falaky [princip. inv.], and Karen Burgess [princip. inv.], Celtic Studies Association of North America (CSANA)/UCLA Celtic studies on-line bibliography, Online, ?–2020. URL: <>

The Celtic Studies On-line Bibliography Project is the only ongoing bibliography of Celtic studies that attempts to cover all aspects of Celtic studies (language, literature, history, culture) and work on and in all the Celtic languages (ancient and modern). It is a joint project of the Celtic Studies Association of North America (which used to publish earlier versions of the Bibliography) and UCLA’s Center for Medieval and Renaissance Studies.

Jaski, Bart [ed. and tr.], “Cáin lánamna ‘The regulation of couples’. Text and translation of the early Irish law-tract on marriage and sexual relationships”, Utrecht University website, Online: Utrecht University, 2005–.
Jaski, Bart, “A supplement to the bibliography of Fergus Kelly, A guide to early Irish law”, Utrecht University website, Online: Utrecht University, 2005–.
Jaski, Bart, “Reconstructing Cáin Fhuithirbe”, Utrecht University website, Online: Utrecht University, 2005–. – 2017 version, with minor revisions: <link>
The early Irish law tract Cáin Fhuithirbe (ca. 680) is preserved in five fragments which contain glossed excerpts of the original text. This article is a preliminary attempt to reconstruct, as far as possible, the sequence of the original text by comparing the five extant fragments. The reconstructed text is given without glosses, translation or analysis. In one manuscript version of the tract, TCD 1363 (olim H. 4. 22), a page is missing which has not been noted previously.
Les tablettes rennaises: patrimoine numérisé de la Bibliothèque de Rennes Métropole, Online: Bibliothèque de Rennes Métropole, ?–. URL: <>
“MS0598 [Bibliothèque de Rennes Métropole, MS 598]”, Les tablettes rennaises: patrimoine numérisé de la Bibliothèque de Rennes Métropole, Online: Bibliothèque de Rennes Métropole, 2013–. URL: <>
Moran, Dermot, “John Scottus Eriugena”, in: Edward N. Zalta (ed.), The Stanford encyclopedia of philosophy, Online: Center for the Study of Language and Information (CSLI), Stanford University, ...–present.. URL: <>
Simader, Friedrich, “Die Handschriften der Vorsignaturengruppe ‘Salisburgenses’ und ihre Herkunft”, ÖNB: Österreichische Nationalbibliothek, Vienna, Online, 2005–present. online. URL: <>
Theuerkauf, Marie-Luise, Dindshenchas Érenn, Cork Studies in Celtic Literatures, 7, Cork: CSCL, 2023.

The purpose of the present volume is to provide an accessible overview and entry into the complex literary creation known as Dindshenchas Érenn ‘History of the Notable Places of Ireland’. The five chapters in the book consider different aspects of the Dindshenchas corpus, ranging from the manuscript sources; the format and structure of the various texts so labelled; an overview of the scholarship published to date; the dating of the corpus; the Dindshenchas as a branch of aetiological literature; and an analysis of the literary connections between the Dindshenchas and medieval Irish literature generally.

Kelleher, Margaret, and James OʼSullivan (eds), Technology in Irish literature and culture, Cambridge Themes in Irish Literature and Culture, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2023.
Kennedy, Máire, “Printing and publishing technologies, 1700–1820”, in: Margaret Kelleher, and James OʼSullivan (eds), Technology in Irish literature and culture, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2023. 29–48.
Arbuthnot, Sharon, “Technology, terminology, and the Irish language, past and present”, in: Margaret Kelleher, and James OʼSullivan (eds), Technology in Irish literature and culture, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2023. 217–232.
Ní Mhaonaigh, Máire, “Technology, writing, and place in medieval Irish literature”, in: Margaret Kelleher, and James OʼSullivan (eds), Technology in Irish literature and culture, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2023. 137–153.
Caball, Marc, “Print as technology: the case of the Irish language, 1571–1850”, in: Margaret Kelleher, and James OʼSullivan (eds), Technology in Irish literature and culture, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2023. 11–28.
Virtual record treasury of Ireland, Online: Trinity College Dublin, 2022–present. URL: <>
Buttimer, Cornelius G., Catalogue of Irish manuscripts in Houghton Library, Harvard University, University of Notre Dame Press, 2022. 432 pp.

Harvard University has the largest collection of Irish-language codices in North America, held in Houghton Library, its rare book repository. The manuscripts are a part of the age-old heritage of Irish book production, dating to the early Middle Ages. Handwritten works in Houghton contain versions of medieval poetry and sagas, recopied in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, to which period most of the library’s documents belong. Contemporary writings from that time, as well as ones by the post-Famine Irish immigrant community in the United States, are included. This catalogue describes the collection in full for the first time and will be an invaluable aid to research on Irish and Irish American cultural and literary output. The author’s introduction examines how the collection was formed. This untold story is an important chapter in America’s intellectual history, reflecting a phase of unprecedented expansion in Harvard University’s scholarship and teaching during the early twentieth century when the institution’s program of studies began to accommodate an increasing range of European languages and literatures and their sources. This indispensable guide to a major repository’s records of the Irish past, and of America’s Irish diaspora, will interest specialists in early and post-medieval codices. It should prove of relevance as well to scholars and students of comparative literature, cultural studies, and Irish and Irish American history.

Frame, Robin, Plantagenet Ireland, Dublin: Four Courts Press, 2022.

For more than two centuries after 1199, Ireland was ruled by Plantagenet kings, lineal descendants of Henry II. The island became closely tied to the English crown not just by English law and by direct administration, but through other networks, above all the allegiance of a settler establishment led by aristocratic, ecclesiastical and civic elites that benefited from being within the orbit of royal patronage and service. This book contains fifteen interlinked studies, several of which appear here for the first time. The opening chapters trace Ireland’s changing place within a wider Plantagenet realm that itself altered geographically and institutionally during the period. In the thirteenth century Gaelic leaders were pushed to the geographical and political margins. In the fourteenth, English control and English custom retreated, posing fresh challenges to the crown and its ministers. Despite the alarmist claims of settler communities, Plantagenet Ireland was far from collapsing. Later chapters explore the altered distribution of power across the island. English chief governors, some of whom had experience of other borderlands of the Plantagenet realm, exercised power in a mixture of cultural modes, which enabled them to draw in, rather than simply confront, Gaelic lords and marcher lineages.

Ireland, Colin A., The Gaelic background of Old English poetry before Bede, Publications of the Richard Rawlinson Center, Kalamazoo: Medieval Institute Publications, 2022.
Front matter -- Acknowledgements -- Preface -- Contents -- List of figures -- Introduction -- 1. Early vernacular poetic practice -- 2. Early historical poets before Bede -- 3. Professional poets and vernacular narratives -- 4. The church and the spread of bilingual learning -- 5. The ethnic mix of Anglo-Saxon empire -- 6. The long century of Anglo-Saxon conversion -- 7. Cædmon’s world at Whitby -- Afterword -- Bibliography -- Index.

Seventh-century Gaelic law-tracts delineate professional poets (filid) who earned high social status through formal training. These poets cooperated with the Church to create an innovative bilingual intellectual culture in Old Gaelic and Latin. Bede described Anglo-Saxon students who availed themselves of free education in Ireland at this culturally dynamic time. Gaelic scholars called sapientes (“wise ones”) produced texts in Old Gaelic and Latin that demonstrate how Anglo-Saxon students were influenced by contact with Gaelic ecclesiastical and secular scholarship. Seventh-century Northumbria was ruled for over 50 years by Gaelic-speaking kings who could access Gaelic traditions. Gaelic literary traditions provide the closest analogues for Bede’s description of Cædmon’s production of Old English poetry. This ground-breaking study displays the transformations created by the growth of vernacular literatures and bilingual intellectual cultures. Gaelic missionaries and educational opportunities helped shape the Northumbrian “Golden Age”, its manuscripts, hagiography, and writings of Aldhelm and Bede.

Joyce, Stephen J., The legacy of Gildas: constructions of authority in the early medieval West, Studies in Celtic History, 43, Martlesham: Boydell Press, 2022.
Figures -- Preface and acknowledgements -- Abbreviations -- Introduction: 1. Narratives for early medieval Britain and Ireland -- 2. Images of Gildas -- 3. Gildas’s De excidio: authority and the monastic ideal -- 4. Columbanus and Gregory the Great -- 5. Gildas and the Hibernensis -- 6. Bede and Gildas -- Conclusion: The legacy of Gildas -- Appendix: De communicatione Gildas -- Bibliography -- Index.
Clarke, Michael, and Máire Ní Mhaonaigh (eds), Medieval multilingual manuscripts: case studies from Ireland to Japan, Studies in Manuscript Cultures, 24, Berlin, Online: De Gruyter, 2022.
Ní Mhaonaigh, Máire, “International vernacularisation, c. 1390 CE: the ‘Book of Ballymote’”, in: Michael Clarke, and Máire Ní Mhaonaigh (eds), Medieval multilingual manuscripts: case studies from Ireland to Japan, 24, Berlin, Online: De Gruyter, 2022. 209–229.

The ‘Book of Ballymote’ is a late fourteenth-century manuscript written in Ireland and predominantly in the vernacular (the Irish language). In its focus on history, local, regional and global, it draws on and develops biblical and classical themes. It does so in a way that demonstrates how medieval Irish scholars moulded their own language to occupy this international cultural space. Their continued use of Latin in specific contexts underlies their creativity and skill.

Moran, Pádraic, “Latin grammar crossing multilingual zones: St Gall, Stiftsbibliothek, 904”, in: Michael Clarke, and Máire Ní Mhaonaigh (eds), Medieval multilingual manuscripts: case studies from Ireland to Japan, 24, Berlin, Online: De Gruyter, 2022. 35–53.

Priscian’s Latin Grammar was originally written to enable Greek-speakers to study Latin. In this ninth-century manuscript, a further dimension is added by the presence of over 9,400 annotations written sometimes in Latin, sometimes in Old Irish, and often code-switching between the two, all in the service of the study of linguistic science.

Nooij, Lars B., and Peter Schrijver, “Medieval Wales as a linguistic crossroads in Cambridge, Corpus Christi College, MS 153”, in: Michael Clarke, and Máire Ní Mhaonaigh (eds), Medieval multilingual manuscripts: case studies from Ireland to Japan, 24, Berlin, Online: De Gruyter, 2022. 55–66.

The manuscript known as Cambridge, Corpus Christi College, MS 153 contains a copy of Martianus Capella’s Latin text De Nuptiis Mercurii et Philologiae. Written in Wales around 900 CE, it includes marginal annotations in Latin and Old Welsh that open a window on the spread of Carolingian educational culture to Celtic-speaking Britain. Evidence is examined here for close interaction between some of the indigenous languages of the island and the learned Latin of the schools, and even for surviving traces of the variety of spoken Latin that had been current in Britain under the Empire.

Clarke, Michael, “The manuscripts of the Irish Liber hymnorum, a bilingual anthology of sacred verse”, in: Michael Clarke, and Máire Ní Mhaonaigh (eds), Medieval multilingual manuscripts: case studies from Ireland to Japan, 24, Berlin, Online: De Gruyter, 2022. 119–150.

The Irish Liber Hymnorum is a collection of hymns and para-liturgical material contained in two glossed and richly-decorated manuscripts from the late eleventh century. The hymns themselves, and the commentary apparatus, exhibit a pattern of alternation and even virtual merger between Latin and Old Irish. It is argued here that this interaction between languages is essential to the representation of the poems as a national poetic and spiritual canon.

Thomas, Rebecca, History and identity in early medieval Wales, Studies in Celtic History, 44, Woodbridge, Suffolk, Rochester, New York: D. S. Brewer, 2022.
Introduction -- 1. Names, territories, and kingdoms -- 2. Language -- 3. Origin legends I: the Britons -- 4. Origin legends II: Legitimate and illegitimate migration -- 5. Asser and the origins of Alfred's kingdom -- Conclusions.

Early medieval writers viewed the world as divided into gentes ("peoples"). These were groups that could be differentiated from each other according to certain characteristics - by the language they spoke or the territory they inhabited, for example. The same writers played a key role in deciding which characteristics were important and using these to construct ethnic identities. This book explores this process of identity construction in texts from early medieval Wales, focusing primarily on the early ninth-century Latin history of the Britons (Historia Brittonum), the biography of Alfred the Great composed by the Welsh scholar Asser in 893, and the tenth-century vernacular poem Armes Prydein Vawr ("The Great Prophecy of Britain"). It examines how these writers set about distinguishing between the Welsh and the other gentes inhabiting the island of Britain through the use of names, attention to linguistic difference, and the writing of history and origin legends. Crucially important was the identity of the Welsh as Britons, the rightful inhabitants of the entirety of Britain; its significance and durability are investigated, alongside its interaction with the emergence of an identity focused on the geographical unit of Wales.

Journal of Celtic Linguistics 23 (2022), University of Wales Press.
Hammond, Michael, and S. J. Hannahs, “Orthographic epenthesis and vowel deletion in Welsh”, Journal of Celtic Linguistics 23 (2022): 115–136.

In this paper, we examine the distribution of epenthesis in final clusters and initial syllable deletion in trisyllabic words in Welsh using a corpus of Twitter data (Jones et al. 2015). We show that the generalisations established in Hannahs 2009, Hannahs 2011, and Hannahs 2013 are largely borne out, but there are additional lexical and phonological complications.

Specifically, we show that these two processes are subject to lexical frequency effects that go in opposite directions. While this seems at first paradoxical, we go on to show that the frequency effects make sense given what we know about phonological processes generally and what we know about Welsh phonotactics specifically.

The organization of this paper is as follows. We first review Hannahs's foot-based account of the facts. We then turn to our Twitter data testing Hannahs's claims, but also considering additional variables. We show that: i) the phenomena are gradient; and ii) that they are subject to lexical frequency effects. We then argue that these effects are, in fact, to be expected and we justify that claim by looking at further data from another corpus.

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