Aberystwyth, National Library of Wales, Peniarth MS 20
  • s. xiv1
Jacques, Michaela, “Syllable and diphthong classification in the medieval Welsh bardic grammars”, Language and History 63 (2020): 73–90.  
The medieval Welsh bardic grammars, known as ‘Gramadegau’r Penceirddiaid,’ include an extensive system of classification to describe syllable and diphthong types. While much of the rest of the linguistic description in the bardic grammars is heavily Latinate, this section is apparently innovative and oriented towards the demands of bardic composition. The syllables and diphthongs section is extensively revised over the course of its transmission, and either expanded or contracted depending on the aims and purposes of its editors. This article examines the two earliest revisions, found in Peniarth MS 20 (c.1330) and Bangor MS 1 (mid-fifteenth century) as evidence of the changing function of the grammars over the course of the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. A case is made for the increasing use of the grammars as practical pedagogical documents from the mid-fifteenth century.
Stephenson, David, “The continuation of Brut y tywysogyon in NLW, MS Peniarth 20 revisited”, in: Ben Guy, Georgia Henley, Owain Wyn Jones, and Rebecca Thomas (eds), The chronicles of medieval Wales and the March: new contexts, studies, and text, 31, Brepols, 2020. 155–168.
Cook, Brian, and Paul Russell, “The multispectral recovery of trioedd cerdd in NLW Peniarth 20”, National Library of Wales Journal 36:4 (2017): 558–574, 575–586 (images).
Charles-Edwards, T. M., “The Welsh bardic grammars on litterae”, in: Deborah Hayden, and Paul Russell (eds), Grammatica, gramadach and gramadeg: vernacular grammar and grammarians in medieval Ireland and Wales, 125, Amsterdam: John Benjamins, 2016. 149–160.  
The first part of this chapter considers the relatively straightforward relationship between the section on letters in Gramadegau Penceirddiaid (GP), the Welsh vernacular grammars, and the section on Litterae in Donatus’s Ars Maior. It then goes on to consider the more problematic case of how the voiced dental fricative /ð/, now written in Welsh with a double dd, was spelt in the different versions of GP. In particular the adoption of the Latin abbreviation for que as a spelling for /ð/ in the Peniarth 20 version is considered in the context of the development of consistent orthographies in late Middle Welsh.
Thomas, Peter Wynn [ed.], D. Mark Smith, and Diana Luft [transcribers and encoders], Welsh prose (Rhyddiaith Gymraeg) 1300–1425, Online: Cardiff University, 2007–present. URL: <>.
“NLW MS. Peniarth 20”
Charles-Edwards, Gifford, and T. M. Charles-Edwards, “The continuation of Brut y tywysogion in Peniarth MS. 20”, in: Tegwyn Jones, and E. B. Fryde (eds), Ysgrifau a cherddi cyflwynedig i Daniel Huws: Essays and poems presented to Daniel Huws, Aberystwyth: National Library of Wales, 1994. 293–305.
Evans, J. Gwenogvryn, Report on manuscripts in the Welsh language, vol. 1: Peniarth, Historical Manuscripts Commission, London, 1899.
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342   “MS 20”
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