Picard (Jean-Michel)

  • s. xx–xxi
Picard, Jean-Michel, “Conuersatio Scottorum: une mise au point sur les coutumes monastiques irlandaises du haut Moyen Âge (vie-viiie siècle)”, in: Yves Coativy (ed.), Landévennec 818–2018: une abbaye bénédictine en Bretagne. Actes du colloque de Landévennec des 6, 7 et 8 juin 2018, Brest: CRBC, 2020. 113–124.
Duffy, Paul, Tadhg OʼKeeffe, and Jean-Michel Picard, “The Cathar heresy and Anglo-Norman Ireland”, in: Paul Duffy, Tadhg OʼKeeffe, and Jean-Michel Picard (eds), From Carrickfergus to Carcassonne: the epic deeds of Hugh de Lacy during the Albigensian Crusade, Turnhout: Brepols, 2018. 1–6.
Picard, Jean-Michel, “Transmission and circulation of French texts in medieval Ireland: The other Simon de Montfort”, in: Paul Duffy, Tadhg OʼKeeffe, and Jean-Michel Picard (eds), From Carrickfergus to Carcassonne: the epic deeds of Hugh de Lacy during the Albigensian Crusade, Turnhout: Brepols, 2017. 129–150.  

Hugh de Lacy’s deeds in Languedoc as a companion of Simon de Montfort during the Albigensian Crusade are known to us less from charters or annals than from a literary text, the Canso de la Crusada. The literary genre of the historical poem, be it Geste, Roman or Chanson (Canso in Provençal) was an important device not only as a tool of propaganda but also for shaping the identity of social groups in twelfth and thirteenthcentury Europe. Members of the de Lacy family are celebrated in such texts over three generations in Ireland, England and France. In Ireland, the reading or declaiming of such pieces was part of a wider cultural context where French was not only used among the warrior elite and the monastic orders but also by influent town folks as a prestigious medium reflecting the status of their town. The circulation of French texts in medieval Ireland lasted and implies the existence of complex networks. An interesting example is the TCD manuscript which contains the Annals of Multifarnham Abbey and also includes a poem in French lamenting the death of Simon de Montfort the younger.

Picard, Jean-Michel, “Hagiographie mérovingienne et hagiographie irlandaise: typologie des miracles et spécificité culturelle: les miracles évangéliques”, Britannia Monastica 19 (2017): 153–172.
Picard, Jean-Michel, “Omnes sancti chori Hiberniae sanctorum orate pro nobis: manuscript evidence for the cult of Irish saints in medieval Europe”, in: Ann Buckley (ed.), Music, liturgy, and the veneration of saints of the medieval Irish church in a European context, Turnhout: Brepols, 2017. 67–77.
Duffy, Paul, Tadhg OʼKeeffe, and Jean-Michel Picard (eds), From Carrickfergus to Carcassonne: the epic deeds of Hugh de Lacy during the Albigensian Crusade, Turnhout: Brepols, 2017.  
‘From Carrickfergus to Carcassonne…’ has its genesis in the IRC funded exhibition of the same name which explores the unlikely links between medieval Ulster and Languedoc.Hinging upon the personal story of a charismatic individual – Hugh de Lacy, earl of Ulster, ‘From Carrickfergus to Carcassonne’ explores the wider interplay between the Gaelic, Angevin, Capetian and Occitan worlds in the late twelfth and early thirteenth centuries.This book brings to light new research linking de Lacy to a conspiracy with the French king and details his subsequent exile and participation in the Albigensian Crusade in the south of France. The combined papers in this volume detail this remarkable story through interrogation of the historical and archaeological evidence, benefitting not just from adept scholarly study from Ireland and the UK but also from a southern French perspective. The ensemble of papers describe the two realms within which de Lacy operated, the wider political machinations which led to his exile, the Cathar heresy, the defensive architecture of France and Languedoc and the architectural influences transmitted throughout this period from one realm to another.In exploiting the engaging story of Hugh de Lacy, this volume creates a thematic whole which facilitates wide ranging comparison between events such as the Anglo-Norman take-over of Ireland and the Albigensian Crusade, the subtleties of doctrine in Ireland and Languedoc and the transmission of progressive castle design linking the walls of Carcassonne and Carrickfergus.
Picard, Jean-Michel, “Vir apostolicus: St. Peter and the claim of apostolicity in early medieval Ireland”, in: Pádraic Moran, and Immo Warntjes (eds), Early medieval Ireland and Europe: chronology, contacts, scholarship. A Festschrift for Dáibhí Ó Cróinín, 14, Turnhout: Brepols, 2015. 425–440.  
The use of the expression vir apostolicus in hagiographical texts written in early medieval Ireland is explained in the context of the claims of apostolicity made by the early Christian churches in continental Europe. Hagiographers from different communities in Ireland appear to have been aware of the significance of the term and of the stakes involved. The success of the Armagh scholars in imposing a vision of their patron saint as the ‘apostle’ of Ireland was the result of a long and ingenious process, using elements of rhetoric found in early Christian writers of the previous centuries.
Picard, Jean-Michel, “Space organization in early Irish monasteries: the platea”, in: Charles Doherty, Linda Doran, and Mary Kelly (eds), Glendalough: City of God, Dublin: Four Courts Press, 2011. 54–63.
Picard, Jean-Michel, “Entre Bretagne et Normandie, le culte des saints irlandais”, in: Joëlle Quaghebeur, and Bernard Merdrignac (eds), Bretons et Normands au Moyen Âge: rivalités, malentendus, convergences, Rennes: PUR, 2008. 51–64.
Collection:  – Available to Freemium users: <link>
Picard, Jean-Michel, “Bède et ses sources irlandaises”, in: Stéphane Lebecq, Michel Perrin, and Olivier Szerwiniack (eds), Bède le Vénérable: entre tradition et posterité, 34, Villeneuve d'Ascq, 2005. 43–61. <link>
Picard, Jean-Michel, “Bede and Irish scholarship: scientific treatises and grammars”, Ériu 54 (2004): 139–147.
Picard, Jean-Michel, “L'exégèse irlandaise des Épîtres de Saint Paul: les gloses latines et gaéliques de Würzburg”, Recherches augustiniennes et patristiques 33 (2003): 155–167.
Richter, Michael, and Jean-Michel Picard (eds), Ogma: essays in Celtic studies in honour of Próinséas Ní Chatháin, Dublin: Four Courts, 2002.
Picard, Jean-Michel, “Schaffhausen Generalia 1 and the textual transmission of Adomnán’s Vita Columbae on the continent”, in: Próinséas Ní Chatháin, and Michael Richter (eds), Ireland and Europe in the early Middle Ages: texts and transmissions / Irland und Europa im früheren Mittelalter: Texte und Überlieferung, Dublin: Four Courts Press, 2002. 95–102.
Picard, Jean-Michel, “Early contacts between Ireland and Normandy: the cult of Irish saints in Normandy before the conquest”, in: Michael Richter, and Jean-Michel Picard (eds), Ogma: essays in Celtic studies in honour of Próinséas Ní Chatháin, Dublin: Four Courts, 2002. 85–93.
Picard, Jean-Michel, “The cult of Columba in Lotharingia (9th–11th centuries): the manuscript evidence”, in: John Carey, Máire Herbert, and Pádraig Ó Riain (eds), Studies in Irish hagiography: saints and scholars, Dublin: Four Courts Press, 2001. 221–236.
Picard, Jean-Michel, “Princeps and principatus in the early Irish Church: a reassessment”, in: Alfred P. Smyth (ed.), Seanchas. Studies in early and medieval Irish archaeology, history and literature in honour of Francis J. Byrne, Dublin: Four Courts Press, 2000. 146–160.
Picard, Jean-Michel, “La version messine de la Vita Columbae et le culte de saint Colum Cille”, in: Frédéric Kurzawa (ed.), Les moines irlandais dans la Lorraine médiévale, Metz: Serpenoise, 1999. 171–181.
Picard, Jean-Michel, “Adomnán’s Vita Columbae and the cult of Colum Cille in continental Europe”, Proceedings of the Royal Irish Academy 98 C (1998): 1–23.  
The study of the text transmission of Adomnán's Vita Columbae on the Continent brings new insights into the diffusion of the cult of Colum Cille in Continental Europe in the early Middle Ages. Continental writers were able to supplement the information found in Adomnán's Vita Columbae with oral tradition collected from Irish monks travelling or living in the Continent; this is evident in the works of Walahfrid Strabo of Reichenau (†849), Notker Balbulus of St-Gall (†912) and Hermann of St-Félix (982-3). The evidence drawn from calendars, martyrologies, missals and catalogues of relics confirms the extent of his cult from Brittany to Austria. Continental folklore traditions complete the information found in hagiographical and liturgical texts and suggest that the transmission of the lore concerning Colum Cille was a live phenomenon linked to Irish activity in specific areas on the Continent.
Picard, Jean-Michel, “Tailoring the sources: the Irish hagiographer at work”, in: Próinséas Ní Chatháin, and Michael Richter (eds), Irland und Europa im früheren Mittelalter: Bildung und Literatur / Ireland and Europe in the early Middle Ages: learning and literature, Stuttgart: Klett-Cotta, 1996. 261–274.
Picard, Jean-Michel (ed.), Aquitaine and Ireland in the Middle Ages, Dublin: Four Courts Press, 1995.
Picard, Jean-Michel, “Inferno, v. 73-142: the Irish sequel”, in: John C. Barnes, and Cormac Ó Cuilleanáin (eds), Dante and the middle ages: literary and historical essays, Dublin: Irish Academic Press, 1995. 271–286.
Picard, Jean-Michel, “Aquitaine et Irlande dans le haut Moyen Âge”, in: Jean-Michel Picard (ed.), Aquitaine and Ireland in the Middle Ages, Dublin: Four Courts Press, 1995. 17–30.
Picard, Jean-Michel, “Sur l’ordre des mots dans la prose latine des hagiographes irlandais du VIIe siècle”, in: Danièle Conso, Nicole Fick, and Bruno Poulle (eds), Mélanges François Kerlouégan, 515, Paris: Les Belles Lettres, 1994. 483–500.
Picard, Jean-Michel, “Les celticismes des hagiographes irlandais du VIIe siècle”, Études Celtiques 29 (1992): 355–373.  
[FR] Les textes hagiographiques hiberno-latins du VIIe siècle offrent un corpus d’éléments sûrs, localisables et datables qui permettent d’évaluer l’influence que les langues celtiques ont pu avoir sur le latin des auteurs insulaires. Excluant la catégorie des noms propres, l’analyse des autres éléments révèle quatre types d’interférence : emploi de mots celtiques, emploi de mots celtiques latinisés, changements sémantiques dûs à l’influence de l’irlandais, particularités syntaxiques, en particulier dans l’emploi des prépositions. Une section finale sur les pseudo-celticismes remet en question plusieurs opinions formulées par des érudits modernes sur des faits de langue insolites en latin tardif ou même propres à nos auteurs de référence, mais pour lesquels il n’est pas nécessaire d’invoquer l’influence de l’irlandais. Cette étude lexicologique des Vies de saints latines du VIIe siècle éclaire aussi le sens de certains mots en irlandais ancien.

[EN] The Celticisms of the seventh century Irish hagiographers.
The Latin saints Lives written in Ireland in the seventh century provide a corpus of reliable texts which can be studied to assess the influence of the Celtic languages on the Latin prose of Insular writers. This survey, which excludes proper names, shows four types of interferences : use of Celtic words, use of latinized Celtic words, semantic modifications due to the influence of Irish, syntactical solecisms, especially in the use of prepositions. Finally, a section on pseudo-celticisms deals with several erroneous assumptions held by modern scholars on the Celtic origins of some Late Latin forms found in the prose of Irish hagiographers. This study of seventh century Latin saints Lives also contributes to a better understanding of the meaning of some Old Irish words.
Journal volume:  Persée – Études Celtiques, vol. 29, 1992: <link>


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Dennis Groenewegen
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March 2018