Eska (Joseph F.)

  • s. xx–xxi
Eska, Joseph F., and Benjamin Bruch, “The Late Cornish syntax of William Bodinar”, Études Celtiques 47 (2021): 197–218.
Eska, Joseph F., and Benjamin Bruch, “Remarks on pragmatic fronting and poetic overdetermination in Middle Cornish”, North American Journal of Celtic Studies 5:2 (Autumn, 2021): 131–193.  

As a verb-second language, one expects Middle Cornish to allow only a single argument/complement to appear in the left periphery of affirmative root clauses. Object personal pronouns never occur in the left periphery, but a full non-adjunct XP and subject personal pronoun do, in fact, coöccur in 329 clauses in our corpus—in that order, in all but a single token—, presumably owing to poetic overdetermination, which alters the morphosyntax and surface configuration in order to enable the required syllable-count or end-rhyme in the verse line. George 1990 & 1991, based upon an analysis of Beunans Meriasek, finds five tokens of full object DP and subject personal pronoun which coöccur in the left periphery, which, he states, are not motivated by poetic overdetermination. He concludes, on that basis, that the construction is generated by the grammar. In this paper, we collect all of the tokens of this construction in the verse corpus of Middle Cornish and propose that they are all, ultimately, motivated by poetic overdetermination, not only in order to enable the required syllable-count or end-rhyme, but sometimes also to encode pragmatic information.

Eska, Joseph F., “Interarticulatory timing and Celtic mutations”, Journal of Celtic Linguistics 21 (2020): 235–255.  
After providing an analysis of Celtic phonology as per the approach to phonology known as Laryngeal Realism, this paper addresses the differing realizations of the two mutations common to Goidelic and Brittonic, the first lenition and nasalization. It is proposed that differences in interarticulatory timing between consecutive segments led to the attested differing realizations of these mutations. Some attention is also paid to the differing realizations of nasalization between Irish and Scottish Gaelic.
Eska, Joseph F., and Benjamin Bruch, “Prolegomena to the diachrony of Cornish syntax”, in: Elliott Lash, Fangzhe Qiu, and David Stifter (eds), Morphosyntactic variation in medieval Celtic languages: corpus-based approaches, 346, Berlin, Online: De Gruyter Mouton, 2020. 313–338.
Eska, Joseph F., “Grounding Celtic diachronic phonology I”, Die Sprache 53:1 (2018–2019): 17–32.
Eska, Joseph F., “Laryngeal realism and early Insular Celtic orthography”, North American Journal of Celtic Studies 3:1 (2019): 1–17.
Journal volume:  – Issue 1: <link> – Issue 2: <link>
Eska, Joseph F., “The evolution of proto-Brit. *-/lth/ in Welsh”, Zeitschrift für celtische Philologie 66 (2019): 75–82.  
This paper argues that the evolution of proto-Brittonic final *-/lth/ > -/lθ/ > -/ɬt/ in Welsh is the result of the metathesis of the feature [spread glottis] from the final coronal fricative to the lateral approximant with well known concomitant phonetic changes that devoiced and fricated the lateral approximant while occluding the coronal fricative.
Eska, Joseph F., “Laryngeal realism and the prehistory of Celtic”, Transactions of the Philological Society 116:3 (November, 2018): 320–331.  

This paper examines the proto‐Celtic plosive system through the lens of Laryngeal Realism. Drawing upon phonetic data from contemporary Celtic languages and philological data from medieval Insular Celtic and ancient Continental Celtic languages, it concludes that the active Laryngeal feature in these languages is not [voice], but [spread glottis], and that this feature should be projected back to proto‐Celtic. Such an analysis allows for a much more straightforward analysis of the evolution of the early Celtic plosive system, and, in particular, allows for a non‐stipulative analysis of perhaps the best known of Celtic sound changes, the loss of proto‐IE */p/, in simple aerodynamic terms. It is demonstrated, furthermore, that the loss of proto‐IE */p/ cannot be explained by contact with pre‐Basque or Iberian, but, instead, was, in all likelihood, a natural development.

Eska, Joseph F. (ed.), North American Journal of Celtic Studies 1:1–2 (May-November, 2017), Ohio State University Press.
Eska, Joseph F., “Phonological contrasts and character reduction in the alphabet of Lugano”, Zeitschrift für celtische Philologie 64 (2017): 59–80.
Eska, Joseph F., and Charlene M. Eska, “In defence of KuiTos leKaTos”, Études Celtiques 43 (2017): 81–94.  
[FR] En faveur de la lecture KuiTos leKaTos. M. J. Estaran Tolosa écrit, dans Études celtiques, XLI-2015, p. 95-109, que la forme traditionnellement lue KuiTos dans l’inscription de San Bernardino di Briona (Novara) doit être lue KuiToi et forme un syntagme avec la forme précédente TanoTaliKnoi. Notre article soutient que le caractère final de cette forme est différent de tout autre signe de < i > dans l’inscription : en effet, c’est précisément l’image inverse d’un exemple de < s > en l. A1 de l’inscription. De même, l’analyse linguistique est décidément en faveur de la lecture traditionnelle.

[EN] M. J. Estaran Tolosa proposes in Études celtiques, XLI-2015, p. 95-109, that the form traditionally read as KuiTos in the inscription of S. Bernardino di Briona (Novara) is, instead, to be read as KuiToi and forms a syntagm with the preceding form TanoTaliKnoi. This paper argues that the final character of this form is unlike any other token of < i > in the inscription, and, indeed, it is precisely the inverse image of a token of < s > in l. A1 of the inscription. Linguistic analysis, likewise, is decidedly in favour of the traditional reading.
Journal volume:  Persée – Études Celtiques, vol. 43, 2017: <link>
Eska, Joseph F., “Against absolute and conjunct at Rezé (Loire-Atlantique)”, Proceedings of the Harvard Celtic Colloquium 34 (2014): 52–66.
Eska, Joseph F., “Comments on John T. Koch’s Tartessian-as-Celtic enterprise”, Journal of Indo-European Studies 42:3–4 (2014): 428–438.
Henley, Georgia, Paul Russell, and Joseph F. Eska (eds), Rhetoric and reality in medieval Celtic literature: studies in honor of Daniel F. Melia, CSANA Yearbook, 11-12, Hamilton, NY: Colgate University Press, 2014.
Eska, Joseph F., “In defense of Celtic /φ/”, in: Adam I. Cooper, Jeremy Rau, and Michael Weiss (eds), Multi nominis grammaticus: studies in classical and Indo-European linguistics in honor of Alan J. Nussbaum on the occasion of his sixty-fifth birthday, Ann Arbor: Beachstave Press, 2013. 32–43.
Eska, Joseph F. (ed.), Narrative in Celtic tradition: essays in honor of Edgar M. Slotkin, CSANA Yearbook, 8, 9, New York: Colgate University Press, 2011.
Eska, Joseph F., “Where have all the object pronouns gone? The growth of object agreement in earlier Celtic”, Zeitschrift für celtische Philologie 57 (2009–2010): 25–47.
Eska, Joseph F., and D. Ellis Evans, “Continental Celtic”, in: Martin J. Ball, and Nicole Müller (eds), The Celtic languages, 2nd ed., London, New York: Routledge, 2009. 28–54.
Eska, Joseph F., “Remarks on the 3. plural preterite in -us in Continental Celtic”, Die Sprache 47:1 (2007/2008, 2009): 108–119.
Eska, Joseph F., “The emergence of the Celtic languages”, in: Martin J. Ball, and Nicole Müller (eds), The Celtic languages, 2nd ed., London, New York: Routledge, 2009. 22–27.
Eska, Joseph F., “The genitive plural desinence in Celtic and dialect geography”, Die Sprache 46 (2006, 2008): 229–235.
Eska, Joseph F. (ed.), Law, literature and society, CSANA Yearbook, 7, Dublin: Four Courts Press, 2008.
Eska, Joseph F., “Grammars in conflict. Phonological aspects of the Bergin’s rule construction”, Keltische Forschungen 3 (2008): 45–62.
Eska, Joseph F., “On basic configuration and movement within the Gaulish clause”, in: Pierre-Yves Lambert, and Georges-Jean Pinault (eds), Gaulois et celtique continental, Geneve: Droz, 2007. 215–229.
Eska, Joseph F., “On valency and related matters at Séraucourt à Bourges (Cher)”, Studia Celtica 37 (2003): 1–15.


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Dennis Groenewegen
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March 2018, last updated: July 2021