Berlin, Staatsbibliothek Preussischer Kulturbesitz, MS lat. qu. 690/III Augustine, Enchiridion
- s. ix
- distinct manuscript
- Continental manuscripts containing Irish
- Continental manuscripts containing Irish
9th-century manuscript containing Augustine’s Enchiridion ad Laurentiam (ff. 65r–116r), with some interlinear Latin and Old Irish glosses, and other texts of theological interest. It forms the third part (ff. 65–188) of a composite manuscript probably compiled at St. Maximin's, Trier, and may itself have been written at Mainz.
No description availableSee more ass. with Probus of MainzProbus (Scottus) of Mainz
Probus Scottus of Mainz
Irish monk, scholar and poet at Mainz; known to have been the owner of a copy of Isidore’s Etymologiae (Laon MS 447). An obit of 859 is recorded in the annals of Fulda.
See more “vermutlich Mainz” (Fingernagel).(3)n. 3 Andreas Fingernagel, Die illuminierten lateinischen Handschriften deutscher Provenienz der Staatsbibliothek Preussischer Kulturbesitz Berlin: 8.-12.Jahrhundert (1991): 88.. Bischoff suggests that the dominant hands are of Mainz, while two are Insular or Anglo-Saxon and others point to the area of Reims and Saint-Armand.(4)n. 4 “unter diesen dominieren die Mainzer, andere weisen etwa auf die Gegend von Reims oder Saint-Armand, zwei schreiben insular, wohl angelsächsisch.” Cf. his Katalog. The explanation he offers is that a likely scriptorium for such a mix of scripts to come together would be Mainz. Bischoff also suggests a connection to the Irish scholar Probus.(5)n. 5 Katalog: “Warscheinlich im Mainz zusammengeschrieben (vermutlich im Kreise des Iren Probus, gest. 859)”
The hand, or hands, responsible for writing the text of the Enchiridion on ff. 65-114 and the beginning of 116r. Schillmann compares it to the hand of MS theol. lat fol. 283, again from St. Maximin though originally written elsewhere. Minitiarures in the latter, he says, are reminiscent of Reichenau, but later commentators have instead suggested a Mainz origin. Bischoff (1998) envisages two scribes at work instead, suggesting that the hand of ff. 65r-81v is of Mainz and that of ff. 81v-116r probably of Reims (“eine rundliche frühe Reimser”).
A distinct hand wrote f. 116r-v. It is described by Schillmann as slightly younger (“etwas jüngeren Nachtrag”). Bischoff (1998) mentions an Anglo-Saxon hand, “eine spitzige ags. Hd. über Rasur” on f. 116r.
A third hand wrote ff. 117r-129v. Bischoff (1998) associates it with Mainz, whereas It is described by Schillmann as Anglo-Saxon in character (“hat einen ganz ausgeprägten angelsächsichen Charakter”).
A fourth hand wrote ff. 129v-135v.
A seventh hand wrote ff. 141r-175r, according to Schillmann. Bischoff (1998) describes the hand of f. 141r-v as “eine wohl ebenfalls ags. geschulte, karol. beeinflußste [Hd.]”.
An eighth hand wrote ff. 175v-187v. Bischoff links certain features on ff. 182v and 183r-v (as well as f. 175r) to St Amand.
A separate, smaller hand in paler ink has added argumenta in the margins to the beginning of the Enchiridion as well as interlinear glosses in Latin and Irish for the first 51 chapters of this text. It has been dated between the second half of the 9th century and the 10th (Stern, s. ix or xin; Schillmann, s. x; Bischoff (1998), s. ix2). Stern believes it resembles the first unit of the MS but draws no conclusions.
In spite of the use of Irish glosses, the hand is continental, in Caroline minuscule, not Irish (Stern, “von kontinentaler Hand kopiert, doch von irischer verfasst”). Many spelling errors were made in a way which suggests that the scribe knew no Irish and that the glosses were imperfectly transcribed from an original, most likely the exemplar of the Enchiridion (for spelling errors in the main text, see elsewhere on this page). Stern has argued that the language represents a late stage of Old Irish, aside from a number of early forms.
The text of the Enchiridion breaks off on f. 116. A 10th-century hand writes the remainder of the chapter on an inserted half-leaf. Cf. Bischoff (1998): “115 Pg.zettel s. X1”.
Caroline minuscule, Insular-influenced
Caroline minuscule. Despite a good deal of variety, a degree of Insular influence has been suggested for the scripts as a whole.(1)n. 1 Bischoff (1998): “Gemeinschaftsarbeit von Adepten verschiedener karol. Schulstile, m. insulare Einsprengseln”; Schillmann (1919): “Alle diese Schreiber, so unähnlich sie auch einander sind, zeigen einen Schriftcharakter, der zum mindesten stark insular beeinflusst ist. What struck Stern in particular is the shape of the a, resembling two subsequent c's, which he found antiquated and reminiscent of 8th-century practice in Britain. A markedly Insular, more probably Anglo-Saxon style is also in evidence. Schillmann singles out Hand 3 (but see Bischoff), Bischoff part of f. 116 (“eine spitzige ags. Hd. über Rasur”) and f. 141r-v (“eine wohl ebenfalls ags. geschulte, karol. beeinflusste [Hd.]”).
Orthographic errors have been explained by assuming that an exemplar with Insular script was used. Stern gives a list of anomalous spellings which can be attributed to a “Vorlage eines irischen Schreibers”, e.g. writing i for e and b for p. Schillmann offers a different explanation, suggesting that the copyists made errors because they were unfamiliar with the kind of script they encountered.(2)n. 2 Schillmann: “Ebenso sind die Texte durchweg fehlerhaft und lassen insulare Vorlagen vermuten, welche die Abschreiber z. T. nicht richtig lesen konnten.”
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