Gramadegau’r penceirddiaid‘The grammars of the chief poets’

  • Early Modern Welsh, Middle Welsh
  • prose

A group of vernacular Welsh bardic grammars whose production spans a long line of transmission, revision and adaptation. The earliest two recensions, from the 14th century and onwards, are associated with or attributed to Einion Offeiriad (fl. 13th century) and Dafydd Ddu (fl. 14th century). Later, more elaborate adaptations were produced by Gutun Owain and Simwnt Fychan. While influenced by the Latin grammatical tradition based on the likes of Donatus and Priscian, the grammars sought to apply concepts about the grammatical features of the vernacular to Welsh bardic poetry.

Gramadegau’r penceirddiaid
‘The grammars of the chief poets’
Also known, without article, as Gramadegau penceirddiaid.
Ascribed to: Einion OffeiriadEinion Offeiriad
Entry reserved for but not yet available from the subject index.

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Dafydd Ddu of HiraddugDafydd Ddu of Hiraddug
(d. by 1371)
Dafydd Ddu o Hiraddug, Dafydd Ddu Athro Hiraddug
Welsh poet and editor of a Welsh bardic grammar.
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Gutun OwainGutun Owain
(fl. second half of the 15th century)
Gruffudd ap Huw ab Owain
Gutun Owain (Gruffudd ap Huw ab Owain), Welsh poet and scribe
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Simwnt FychanFychan (Simwnt)
Entry reserved for but not yet available from the subject index.

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  • Early Modern Welsh Middle Welsh
prose (primary)



Early Modern Welsh
Early Modern Welsh
id. 17983

Early Modern Welsh

Middle Welsh
Middle Welsh
id. 1338

The variety of Welsh that was spoken between c. 1100/1150-c. 1500.

grammar (discipline)linguistics
grammar (discipline)
id. 26362


Primary sources Text editions and/or modern translations – in whole or in part – along with publications containing additions and corrections, if known. Diplomatic editions, facsimiles and digital image reproductions of the manuscripts are not always listed here but may be found in entries for the relevant manuscripts. For historical purposes, early editions, transcriptions and translations are not excluded, even if their reliability does not meet modern standards.

[ed.] Williams, Griffith John, and Evan J. Jones, Gramadegau'r penceirddiaid, Cardiff: University of Wales Press, 1934.
C. A., Dennis Groenewegen
Page created
May 2020, last updated: September 2022